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Publication Title | Combined Heat and Power Technology Fact Sheet Series

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Text | Combined Heat and Power Technology Fact Sheet Series | 003



ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE 3
equipment such as a natural gas fuel compressor, heat recovery system, water treatment system, or an emission control system (e.g., selective catalytic reduction and con- tinuous emission monitoring).
Installed
capital costs vary
significantly
depending on
the scope of the
plant equipment,
geographical
area, competitive
market conditions,
special site requirements, emissions control requirements, and prevailing labor rates. Table 3 shows estimated capital costs for six representative gas turbine CHP systems used in typical applications. As indicated, there are economies of scale, with installed costs declining from $3,320/kW for a 3.3 MW system to $1,276/kW for a 40 MW system. Routine maintenance practices include online running maintenance, predictive maintenance, plotting trends, performance testing, vibration analysis, and preventive maintenance procedures. Typically, routine inspections are required every 4,000 hours to ensure that the turbine is free of excessive vibration due
Table 2. Gas Turbine Performance Characteristics
Description
System
1
2
3
4
5
6
Nominal Electric Power (kW)
3,515
4,600
7,965
11,350
21,745
43,069
Net Electric Power (kW)4
3,304
4,324
7,487
10,669
20,440
40,485
Fuel Input (MMBtu/hr, HHV)5
47.5
59.1
87.6
130.0
210.8
389.0
Useful Thermal (MMBtu/hr)
19.6
25.2
36.3
52.2
77.4
133.8
Power to Heat Ratio6
0.58
0.58
0.70
0.70
0.90
1.03
Electric Efficiency (%, HHV)
23.7%
25.0%
29.2%
28.0%
33.1%
35.5%
Thermal Efficiency (%, HHV)7
41.1%
42.7%
41.4%
40.2%
36.7%
34.4%
Overall Efficiency (%, HHV)
64.9%
67.6%
70.6%
68.2%
69.8%
69.9%
Note: Performance characteristics are average values and are not intended to represent a specific product.
Table 3. Gas Turbine Capital and O&M Costs
Description
System
1
2
3
4
5
6
Net Electric Power (kW)
3,304
4,324
7,487
10,669
20,440
40,485
Combustion Turbine ($/kW)
$908
$860
$683
$619
$563
$477
Emissions Control ($/kW)
$208
$174
$126
$92
$74
$65
Balance of Plant ($/kW)
$899
$712
$455
$389
$276
$231
Construction and Installation ($/kW)
$1,305
$1,072
$753
$698
$562
$503
Total Installed Cost ($/kW)
$3,320
$2,817
$2,017
$1,798
$1,474
$1,276
Total O&M (¢/kWh)
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
0.9
0.9
Note: Costs are average values and are not intended to represent a specific product.
to worn bearings and rotors or damaged blade tips. A gas turbine overhaul is needed every 25,000 to 50,000 hours, depending on service, and typically includes a complete inspection and rebuild of components to restore the gas turbine to nearly original or current (upgraded) performance standards. Gas turbine mainte- nance costs can vary significantly depending on the quality and diligence of the preventative maintenance program and operating
conditions.
4 Fuel compressor and other ancillary electric loads are estimated at 6% (i.e., net power assumed to be 94% of nominal power).
5 All quantities in this fact sheet are based on the higher heating value (HHV) of the fuel unless noted otherwise. The ratio of HHV to LHV is assumed to be 1.105 for natural gas.
6 Power to heat ratio is the electric power output divided by the useful thermal output. The quantities are expressed in equivalent units, and the ratio is unit-less.
7 Thermal energy is based on generating 150 psig saturated steam, with 7% of steam production bypassed to deaerator (i.e., 93% of total steam available for process).

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