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Publication Title | Design of Steam Turbine for Electric Power Production Using Heat Energy from Palm Kernel Shell

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Search Completed | Title | Design of Steam Turbine for Electric Power Production Using Heat Energy from Palm Kernel Shell
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B. Kareem et al.
the steam is transformed into kinetic energy by expansion through nozzles, and the kinetic energy of resulting jet is in turn converted into force on rings of blades mounted on a rotating disc. Steam micro-turbines are considered to be such devices which produce output power of the order of a few kWs. Steam tur- bines on micro-power plants are capable of delivering electric power ranging 1 - 6 kW [1]. For optimal electricity production, a thermal power plant (TPP) is chosen to encompass effective and robust choice of facilities. The turbine and the alternator are facilities of importance in the constitution of a TPP [2]. The ability of turbine to generate a rotary motion made it suitable to drive an elec- trical generator.
In the search for an alternative source of energy, palm kernel shell was found to be a well-known biomass product because of its higher heat energy or calorific value. Palm kernel shell has gained it status as a biofuel resource for biomass product which is cheap, readily available and due to its high calorific value, its properties can be utilized in creation of an efficient micro-power plant which comprises of five main components which are the boiler, turbine, generator, condenser and pump. It is therefore beneficial to produce high pressure steam, and let it expand to the desired pressure and temperature through a turbine or to extract part of the steam from the turbine before it reaches the low-pressure stage and its rotary motion is used to drive the generator to produce electricity. The aim of this research is to conduct a design analysis for an efficient steam turbine for a palm kernel shell (PKS) fuelled micro power plant which will gen- erate 5 kW electricity. The specific objectives of this research are to: design and analyze a steam turbine based on predetermined design considerations and ma- terials selection criteria; and evaluate the performance of the steam turbine in propelling the generator to produce 5 kW of electricity. The design analysis has formed a baseline for the development of a steam turbine with target of produc- ing 5 kW of electricity in micro power plant using PKS as fuel. The research is limited to design, simulation and analysis of the rotor, blades and nozzle of the steam turbine.
Palm kernel shell (PKS) is the main by-product of palm kernel oil production. Palm kernel is kernel from oil palm fruit. After the oil palm fruit went through the palm oil process, the kernels are separated and kernel oils distilled [3]. Ola- dosu and Oladosu et al. [4] [5] [6] optimized the combustion of palm kernel shell (PKS) in a grate furnace for superheated steam generation. The outcome supported the use of PKS for power generation because of its higher heating value, but the study failed to implement same. Oladosu et al. [7] [8] [9] used computer based approach to design palm kernel shell combusting furnace for generating a desired amount of electricity. By way of backward calculation ap- proach, standard design equations were used to size furnace, Turbine and other components. The results showed that to generate 5 kW of electricity from palm kernel shell, 5.5 kW turbine is required. The study failed to carry out compre- hensive design of the turbine to utilized heat/steam produced from combustion
DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.611009
112 Journal of Power and Energy Engineering

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