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Search Completed | Title | EPA CHP Technologies Combustion Turbines Section 4
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Text | EPA CHP Technologies Combustion Turbines Section 4 | 021
FGD systems are of two types: non-regenerable and regenerable. The most common non-regenerable results in a waste product that requires proper disposal. Regenerable FGD converts the waste product into a product that is saleable, such as sulfur or sulfuric acid. SOx emissions reductions of up to 95 percent can be obtained with FGD.
4.6 Future Developments
While steam turbines are a mature technology, their importance in worldwide power generation makes incremental improvements in cost and performance very beneficial. Higher efficiencies reduce fuel consumption, emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and cooling water requirements. Since commercial introduction, efficiencies for large condensing steam turbines have increased from the mid- teens to up to 48 percent. The U.S. Department of Energy funds collaborative research and development toward the development of improved ultra-supercritical (USC) steam turbines capable of efficiencies of 55-60 percent that are based on boiler tube materials that can withstand pressures of up to 5,000 psi and temperatures of 1,400o F. To achieve these goals, work is ongoing in materials, internal design and construction, steam valve development, and design of high pressure casings. A prototype is targeted for commercial testing by 2025.82
Research is also underway to restore and improve the performance of existing steam turbines in the field through such measures as improved combustion systems for boilers, heat transfer and aerodynamics to improve turbine blade life and performance, and improved materials to permit longer life and higher operating temperatures for more efficient systems.83
The focus on renewable markets, such as waste heat recovery, biomass fueled power, and CHP plants, is stimulating the demand for small and medium steam turbines. Technology and product development for these markets should bring about future improvements in steam turbine efficiency, longevity, and cost. This could be particularly true for systems below 500 kW that are used in developmental small biomass systems, and in waste-heat-to-power systems, as the latter is designed to operate in place of pressure reduction valves in commercial and industrial steam systems operating at multiple pressures.
82 Advanced Turbines Technology Program Plan, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Clean Coal Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy, January 2013.
83 Energy Tech, http://www.energy-tech.com/article.cfm?id=17566
Catalog of CHP Technologies 4–19 Steam Turbines
Image | EPA CHP Technologies Combustion Turbines Section 4
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