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JET ENGINE THEORY AND DESIGN
Every rating or specialty has a language of its own. The Aviation Machinist’s Mate (AD) is no different. To be a good technician, we must learn and understand the language (terms and theories) necessary for a thorough understanding of your specialty. With this basic understanding, we will develop the skills to recognize, analyze, and correct problems with jet engines. Without it, you become a “parts changer” unable to recognize possible reasons for the problem and analyze them. This chapter contains the basics necessary for the AD to build a strong foundation. You will learn the theory, terms, types of engines, and major parts of jet engines.
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following: 1. Statethetheoryofjetpropulsion.
2. Identify the different types of engines and their major assemblies.
3. Identify the two types of engine designation standards.
4. Identify the common terms and variables affecting engine performance.
BASIC THEORY OF JET PROPULSION
Jet propulsion is the propelling force generated in the direction opposite to the flow of a mass of gas or liquid under pressure. The mass escapes through a hole or opening called a jet nozzle. A familiar example is the nozzle at the end of a fire hose. The nozzle forms a smaller passageway through which the water must flow. The nozzle increases the velocity of the water, giving the term, “a jet of water.” Another example of the theory of jet propulsion is an inflated balloon. With the opening in the balloon closed (Figure1-1), there is no action because the pressure of the gas inside the balloon is equal in all directions. When you allow the opening to release the air (Figure 1-2), the balloon moves. Its movements appear to be in all directions. However, it is always moving in the opposite direction from the open end where the air is exiting.
Figure 1-1 — Balloon example of restricting jet propulsion.
Figure 1-2 — Balloon example of jet propulsion theory.
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