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Publication Title | JET ENGINE THEORY AND DESIGN

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Look at the balloon example from the mechanic’s point of view. Igniting a hydrocarbon fuel (a compound containing only hydrogen and carbon) and oxygen in a closed container (Figure 1-3) releases heat. The burning fuel causes the trapped gases to expand rapidly. The expansion occurs equally in all directions, the force of the pressure is balanced, and the container does not move.
Rocket
When combustion takes place in an open container, the expanding gases rush out the opening at a high velocity (Figure 1-4). The release of internal pressure at the nozzle end of the container leaves an unbalanced pressure at the other end. The released pressure propels
the container (a rocket) in the direction opposite of the exhaust gases. Obviously, propulsion depends solely upon internal conditions. The container does not “push against” external air. In fact, a complete vacuum would produce greater force, the basic operating principle for all jets. The rocket (propulsion unit) is one of the four main classes of jet engines. Before we continue on to the physical principles of jet engines, we will review the three other types of jet engines.
The Ramjet
Suppose you attach a plain cylinder with open ends under the wing of an aircraft flying at high speed. Air enters the front of the duct and leaves at the rear. Nothing increases the force of flow through the duct. There is a loss of energy because of skin friction and airflow disturbances at the entrance and exit. If you add heat energy to the air as it passes through the duct, the air would expand and increase the jet velocity. (Figure 1-5). The amount of heat you can add is largely dependent upon the pressure of the air treated. A simple method of raising the pressure is to pass the air through a DIVERGENT entry nozzle. A divergent entry nozzle converts gaseous energy from velocity to pressure and temperature. This also provides a forward pressure wall for the jet to react. A CONVERGENT exit nozzle converts gaseous energy from pressure and temperature to velocity. The simple gas unit (Figure 1-6) created has little practical use because of the following:
Figure 1-3 — Combustion in a closed vessel.
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Figure 1-4 — Principles of jet propulsion.
Figure 1-5 — Thermal duct with heat added externally to accelerate the airflow.

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