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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-8, Issue-6S2, August 2019
Performance Analysis of Jet Engine of Aircraft
N. Lenin Rakesh, Sabarish R, S. Karthikeyan
Abstract: The jet engine family includes the rocket jet, pulse jet, ram jet & gas turbine powered jet. The gas turbine powered jet is further broken down into the turbo jet, turbo propeller, and turbo shaft & turbofans types. These four types of engines are the most commonly used in today’s aircraft. Kiran aircraft is the basic jet trainer used in Indian air force. Kiran MkII is fitted with Orpheus engine. The engine is a straight flow turbo jet type fitted with a seven stage axial flow compressor and develops 4200+- 84 lbs/ 1909+- 38 kg static thrust at 9500 rpm at sea level. This increase to a maximum at 10,000 ft, due to the characteristics of high pressure fuel pumps in the engine fuel system. Above this height the thrust developed reduces as altitude increases. Air at atmospheric pressure is compressed adiabatically, during its passage across the compressor and diffuser, to approx 4 atm. The pressure and temperature increases and volume decreases at this stage. In the combustion chamber it is supplied at constant pressure thereby considerably increasing the volume of the air. Then during passage of the gas stream through the rear end of the combustion chamber, stationary vanes, turbine and exhaust cone, there is adiabatic expansion which is completed in the propelling nozzle with increased volume and decreased pressure at the end of the propelling nozzle, there is rejection of heat at constant pressure. The Orpheus engine which is fitted in Kiran MkII jet aircraft is performing an excellent job as it is used for giving the training to the fighter pilots.
Keyword : Gas turbine, Turbo propeller, Compressor I. INTRODUCTION
A. Basic Theory and Principles of Propulsion
At the point when an air ship is going through air in straight and level flight and at a steady evident velocity (TAS), the motors must create an all out push equivalent to the delay the flying machine as appeared in Fig.1.1 If the motor push surpasses the drag, the air ship will quicken, and if the drag surpasses the push, the airplane will back off,,.
Albeit an assortment of motor kinds are accessible for flying machine impetus, the push power should consistently originate from air or gas response powers regularly following up on the motor or propeller surfaces.
The two common methods of aircraft propulsion are:
a. The propeller engine powered by piston or gas turbine. b. The jet engine.
Revised Manuscript Received on August 22, 2019.
N. Lenin Rakesh, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
Sabarish R, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bharath Institute of
Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Email: email@example.com
S. Karthikeyan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Rotary wing aircraft are powered by turbo shaft engines which produce shaft power to drive a gearbox and work on similar principles to gas turbine propeller engines (turboprops), except that all the available energy is absorbed by the turbine, with no residual jet thrust.
Figure - 1 Arrangements of Thrust and Drag Forces
II. DESIGN PRINCIPLES A. Propeller Engine
With a propeller engine, the engine power produced drives a shaft which is connected to a propeller usually via a gearbox. The propeller cuts through the air accelerating it rearwards. The blade of a propeller behaves in the same way as the aerofoil of an aircraft; the air speeds up over the leading face of the propeller blade causing a reduced pressure with a corresponding increase of pressure on the rearward face. This leads to a net pressure force over the propeller where Pressure × Area = Force thus providing thrust,
eg: Given: Net pressure of 40 kPa (Pa=N/m2)
and a Blade area of 1 m2
Thrust = 40 kPa X 1 m2 = 40 kN
With gas turbine powered propeller engines, a small amount of thrust is produced by the jet exhaust which will augment the thrust produced by the propeller.
An alternative method of calculating the thrust produced by a propeller is provided by Newton’s laws of motion which give: Force = Mass X Acceleration
Thrust = Mass flow rate of air through Propeller × Increase in velocity of the air
Where M = Mass flow rate of the air
Vj = Velocity of slip stream
Va = Velocity of the aircraft (TAS)
This will give the same result as that given by the sum of pressure forces. In the case of the propeller, the air mass flow will be large, and the increase in velocity given to the air will be fairly small.
B. Jet Engine
In all cases of the jet engine, a high velocity exhaust gas is produced, the velocity of which, relative to the engine, is considerably greater than the TAS. Thrust is produced according to the equation:
Thrust = M x (V – V ) ja
Retrieval Number: F11790886S219/2019©BEIESP DOI:10.35940/ijeat.F1179.0886S219
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