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Publication Title | The Turbocharged Steam Injected Gas Turbine Cycle

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The Society shall not be responsible for statements or opinions advanced in papers or in dis- cussion at meetings of the Society or of Its Divisions or Sections, or printed in its publications. Discussion is printed only If the paper is published in an ASME Journal. Papers are available from ASME for fifteen months after the meeting.
Printed in USA.
Copyright © 1989 by ASME
Turbo-S.T.I. G.—The Turbocharged Steam Injected Gas Turbine Cycle
Independent Consultant Cape May, New Jersey
In this Steam Injected Gas turbine cycle, maximum steam is raised with exhaust heat at the highest practical pressure for expansion in a back pressure steam turbine before injection into the gas turbine combustor. Additional steam is raised at lower pressure and injected into the combustor, to effect more complete recovery of heat. The back pressure steam turbine drives a topping air compressor which raises the gas cycle pressure ratio. This allows the standard gas turbine blading to accommodate the additional steam flow because of the higher pressure and density of the gas.
Steam and water injection into gas turbines has been practiced as long as there have been gas turbines. The first gas turbine capable of self sustained operation
(Armengaud and Lemale in 1906) used extensive water injection (1).
Water injection has been used for power augmentation in aircraft jet and turboprop engines from about 1950. Steam injection has been used to augment power in industrial gas turbines since about 1960 .
In 1965 Stephens et al published a paper on a system designed by Westinghouse (2). Since that date, papers discussing steam injection have issued frequently. Cheng, who has invented six patents relating to steam injection into gas turbines, cites patents as early as 1949 (3).
The efficiency and benefits of steam injection for power augmentation of gas turbines have increased as technology and firing temperatures have advanced and led to greater use of the concept.
International Power Technology has sold cycles covered by patents issued to Cheng. The Evendale division of GE is selling the steam injected LM 5000 (4), and promoting an advanced intercooled version, the ISTIG. EPRI and PG&E are rumored to have participated to the extent of over one million dollars in studies of STIG and ISTIG with GE presumably contributing at least an equal amount. The Gas Research Institute has funded studies of steam injection systems and is now subsidizing an installation of an Allison 501 at a General Motors plant. Several other organizations are investigating the concept.
Technical papers about steam injected gas turbines proliferate at gas turbine and power generation conferences.
Turbo-STIG Turbo Steam Injected Gas turbine Expander Component in which gas (or steam)
Steam Injected Gas turbine Intercooled STIG
expands to produce power EPRI Electric Power Research Institute
JCF'&L Jersey Central Power and Light PG&E Pacific Gas and Electric
GE General Electric
Pascals Centigrade Joules
= 6895 * psi
= (F-32) * 1.8 = 1056 * Btu
= .45=6 * Lb
= 25.4 * inches
Presented at the Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition—June 4-8, 1989—Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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