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Publication Title | Utilization of Thermal Effect Induced by Plasma Generation for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

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AIAA JOURNAL
Vol. 56, No. 3, March 2018
Utilization of Thermal Effect Induced by Plasma Generation for Aircraft Icing Mitigation
Wenwu Zhou,∗ Yang Liu,† and Hui Hu‡
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011
and
Haiyang Hu§ and Xuanshi Meng§
Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi’an, People’s Republic of China
DOI: 10.2514/1.J056358
An explorative investigation was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a thermal effect induced by dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma generation for aircraft icing mitigation. The experimental study was performed in an icing research tunnel available at Iowa State University. A NACA 0012 airfoil/wing model embedded with dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuators was installed in the icing research tunnel under typical glaze-/rime- icing conditions pertinent to aircraft inflight icing phenomena. While a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice-accretion process over the airfoil surface for the test cases with and without plasma generation, an infrared thermal imaging system was used to map the corresponding temperature distributions to quantify the unsteady heat transfer and phase changing process over the airfoil surface. For the typical glaze-ice condition, the thermal effect induced by dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma generation was demonstrated to be able to prevent ice accretion over the airfoil surface during the entire ice-accretion experiment. The measured quantitative surface temperature distributions were correlated with the acquired images of the dynamic ice-accretion and water runback processes to elucidate the underlying physics.
Nomenclature
A= test section area; 0.4 × 0.4 m C= chord length, 150 mm Q= water flow rate
T∝= incoming flow temperature
U∝= airflow incoming speed
α= angle of attack
ρ= water density
I. Introduction
INFLIGHT icing is widely recognized as a significant hazard to aircraft operations in cold weather. Aircraft icing occurs when small, supercooled, airborne water droplets, which make up clouds and fog, freeze upon impacting on the airframe surface, which allows the formation of ice. Ice accretion over aircraft wings may cause the aircraft to stall at much higher speeds and lower angles of attack than normal. It will make the aircraft to roll or pitch uncontrollably, and recovery may become impossible. Petty and Floyd [1] summarized the accidents due to aircraft icing in the past 20 years, and they reported more than 800 life losses in the accidents. As described by Gent et al. [2], aircraft inflight icing can be either a rime- or glaze- icing process, depending on the flight parameters and environmental conditions. In a dry regime, all the water collected in the impingement area freezes upon impacting to form rime ice. In a wet regime, only a fraction of the collected water freezes in the impingement area to
Received 24 May 2017; revision received 9 October 2017; accepted for publication 5 December 2017; published online 12 January 2018. Copyright © 2017 by Wenwu Zhou, Yang Liu, Haiyang Hu, Xuanshi Meng, and Hui Hu. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. All requests for copying and permission to reprint should be submitted to CCC at www.copyright.com; employ the ISSN 0001-1452 (print) or 1533-385X (online) to initiate your request. See also AIAA Rights and Permissions www.aiaa.org/randp.
*Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2271 Howe Hall, Room 1200; also Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Gas Turbine Research Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, 800 Dongchuan Road, 200240 Shanghai, People’s Republic of China.
†Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2271 Howe Hall, Room 1200.
‡Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2271 Howe Hall, Room 1200; huhui@iastate.edu (Corresponding Author).
§Department of Fluid Mechanics, Shaanxi.
form glaze ice, and the remaining water runs back and freezes outside the impingement area. Rime ice is usually associated with colder temperatures (i.e., below −10°C), lower liquid water contents (LWC; ρQ∕A ⋅ U∝), and a smaller size of the supercooled water droplets in the cloud. Glaze ice is associated with warmer temperatures (i.e., above −10°C), higher LWC levels, and larger droplet size. Because of its wet nature, glaze ice will form much more complicated shapes that are very difficult to accurately predict, and the resulting ice shapes tend to substantially deform the ice-accreting surface [3]. In general, glaze-ice formation will severely degrade the aerodynamic performance of airfoils/wings by causing large-scale flow separation, resulting in dramatic increases in drag and decreases in lift [4]. Glaze ice is also found to be harder, denser, and much more difficult to remove in comparison to rime ice. Therefore, the glaze-ice-accretion process is selected to be the primary focus of the present study.
Although a number of anti-/deicing systems have been developed for aircraft icing mitigation [5–13], current anti-/deicing strategies suffer from various drawbacks. For example, aqueous solutions of propylene and ethylene glycol (minimum of 50% concentration) along with other chemical additives are widely used for aircraft anti-/deicing at airports. Propylene and ethylene glycol, although readily biodegradable, exert an extremely high biochemical oxygen demand on aquatic systems, resulting in killing fish and other aquatic creatures due to the depletion of dissolved oxygen [14]. There have been increasing concerns about the environmental impacts from the aircraft anti-/deicing fluid swept away with storm and melt water runoff at airports to ground water and nearby waterways [15]. Although pneumatic deicing systems with rubber boots have been used to break off ice chunks accreted at the airfoil leading edge for aircraft inflight icing mitigation, they are usually heavy and sometimes unreliable [5]. Although electrothermal deicing systems have also been suggested to melt out ice by heating wing surfaces, they are usually very inefficient and require high-power input, and they may cause damage to composite materials from overheating. Furthermore, the melt water may simply run back and refreeze to cause uncontrolled ice accretion [5].
Advancing the technology for safe and efficient aircraft operation in an atmospheric icing condition requires the development of innovative, effective anti-/deicing strategies to ensure safer and more efficient operation of aircraft in cold weather. In the present study, we report the progress made in our recent efforts to explore the feasibility of using a thermal effect induced by dielectric-barrier-discharge
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