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Publication Title | Analysis of Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) Spray Characteristics at End of Injection (EOI)

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Journal of Medical and Bioengineering (JOMB) Vol. 1, No. 1, September 2012
Analysis of Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) Spray Characteristics at End of Injection (EOI)
Abdullah Adam, Mamat Rizalman, Nur Atiqah, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, and Azran Zafri
Abstract—The depletion source and the increasing demand of fossil fuel have prompted scientists and researchers to search new alternative fuels for diesel engine. Biodiesel is seen a promising alternative fuel to reduce dependent on conventional diesel fuel. Advantages of biodiesel compared to petroleum-based diesel include high biodegradability, excellent lubricity, higher flash point, no sulfur content and produces less air pollutants. Although biodiesel has many advantages on the fuel properties, the fuel consumption rate or lower horsepower output are still need to be improved. This is due to the differences in fuel properties especially the kinematic viscosity between diesel fuel (GO), biodiesel fuel (BDF) and straight vegetable oil (SVO). In this study, the effect of kinematic viscosity of SVO on the spray behavior at End of Injection (EOI) were investigated. High kinematic viscosity of fuel highly affects the spray characteristics at EOI. In additional, high injection pressure and high kinematic viscosity of SVO apply resistance at nozzle inner hole caused needle lift cannot completely close the nozzle at EOI signal. At the EOI in which the combustion temperature inside chamber reduces promptly, many fuel droplets could not undergo a complete atomization process especially for large size of diameter fuel droplets. This phenomenon result the development of carbon deposition around the nozzle tip area and it will cover the nozzle hole. The development of carbon deposition will affect the fuel flow from nozzle. This study indicates that fuel injection pressure show no effect on SVO spray characteristics at the end of injection. Furthermore, high ambient temperature spray will reduce the kinematic viscosity value of SVO and could improve SVO spray atomization at end of injection.
Index Terms—Biodiesel, kinematic viscosity, spray characteristic, straight vegetable oil
Biofuel is a renewable resource that are mainly derived from biomass or bio waste such as a vegetable oil or animal fat-based diesel fuel. The use of biofuel fuel may be the solution to the increasing transportation energy crisis. Biofuel fuels perform just as well as regular diesel fuels and can be used with diesel engine with less modification needed. Laboratory tests, as well as road tests, have proven that biofuel fuels have equally horsepower and torque as diesel engines. With the continued rise of fuel prices, biofuel is set to become much more popular as a fuel option in the
Manuscript received May 31, 2012; revised July 13, 2012.
This work was supported by the University Malaysia Pahang under University Grant RDU110308.
The authors are with the University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia (e-mail:,,,,
©2013 Engineering and Technology Publishing 59 doi: 10.12720/jomb.1.1.59-62
transportation industries.
Some advantages of biofuel application are engines will
last longer when using biofuels. Traditional diesel engines have a much higher rate of engine wear due to oil lubricant problem. Using biofuel could improve lubricity levels inside the engine thus lengthen the engine durability. New regulations require diesel engines to lower sulfur emissions considerably, making biofuel blends much more attractive as a practical fuel to use since it produce less emission compared to fossil fuel [1]-[2]. On the other hand, some disadvantages of biofuel application are biofuel contains less energy value than diesel, leading to reduction of engine power output. Biofuel has yet shown no significant effect on the energy efficiency of any test engine. The energy content per gallon of biofuel is approximately 10% lower than that of petroleum diesel. Vehicles running on biofuel are therefore expected to achieve about 10% fewer miles per gallon of fuel than diesel[3-4]. Other problems include limited oxidation and storage stability, a tendency to form deposits, corrosion issues, cold flow problems and questionable stability from diverse feedstock.
In addition to this research, experiment on spray characteristics of biofuel was done in order to analyze the effect of biofuel kinematic viscosity on fuel spray. Hossainpour et. al [5] conclude that the knowledge of the fuel spray atomization mechanism can be a key issue or a successful simulation of all the subsequent process of mixture formation and eventually combustion and pollutant formation. While Adam et. al. [6]-[7] reported that the characteristics of fuel spray can be obtained using the nano-spark shadowgraph photography technique.
Many know that biofuel fuel has high potential of replacing the usage of diesel. However, biofuel is well known for its high level of the kinematic viscosity. The high level of kinematic viscosity could cause some sort of resistance of fuel flow during fuel injection, effect the spray geometry thus affects the atomization process[8].
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of single spark method.

Image | Analysis of Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) Spray Characteristics at End of Injection (EOI)

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